Entries in sacred sites (3)


Dr. Riccardo L. Brett: Earthlines in the Visoko Valley!

Photo: dr. R. L. Brett

There is evidence of several Neolithic settlements, pre-Illyrian and Illyrian influence, Roman fortresses, Slavic and Gothic VI century expansion, the strong medieval heritage and the survival of the Christian and Pagan influence, and last but not least, the Ottoman occupation and the following culturally annexed centuries.

On the area we have taken in consideration for this report, a total of 27 locations, which can be dated throughout all these time periods: the work we have conducted in the past months has brought to us the evidence of lines which connect these sites in an outstanding way.

The conclusions will be underlined in the final chapter, meanwhile we will proceed to describe each line, from south to north. For each site we will give a brief description taken from some of the main archaeological and historical publications about the valley of Visoko.

The aerial photographs are taken with Google Earth, whilst all other photos have been taken between 2006 and 2012 by several photographers that have worked in the area (see credits).

Earth Lines 1.3




The Earthen Pyramids of Montevecchia: Altars to Unknown Gods

Photo: Aerial view of the small village of Monte, Montevecchia, Italy

by Jock Doubleday & Nenad M. Djurdjević

Independent researcher Nenad Djurdjevic and videographer and writer Jock Doubleday visited the step pyramids in Montevecchia, Italy on November 27, 2011.

(A video of their trip will be soon published on this website.)

These pyramids, made of soil and stone, were brought to the attention of modern scientists in 2003 by Vincenzo di Gregorio, an Italian architect and independent researcher specializing in georadar (sound-wave) detection of underground features. The pyramids are located approximately 40 kilometers northeast of Milan and 15 kilometers south of Lecco in Lombardy Italy.

Orthodox thinking speculates that these pyramids were built by modern farmers who terraced existing hills. But the stones occasionally visible beneath the terrace layers tell a different story. Djurdjevic noted several features of these giant structures indicating both an ancient and an artificial origin.

Photo: Earthen pyramid #1. Area View.On top of Pyramid #1, the southernmost pyramid, Djurdjevic noted a ring of 11 cypress trees planted in a tight circle along with an artificial coarse-grained conglomerate altar [Photo], an altar which he conjectures symbolizes a 12th tree in the ring. This circle of ancient trees creates a space in which religious rituals might have been performed.

It should be remembered that Cypress is a tree that can survive for up to 2,000 years or more, and while the other deciduous trees would lose their leaves in the winter, the cypress trees retained theirs, rendering it supernatural in the eyes of the ancients. For example, ancient Etruscans considered the plant to have mystical connections, and chose to plant the tree around their sacred burial grounds. They believed that the supernatural powers and strong, fragrant essential oils could ward off the evil spirits, and even the smell of death itself. It was believed that more cypress trees in a group would ensure a safe passage into the afterlife.

However, ritualistic veneration of trees in cultures that have built pyramids is not uncommon, and so we find animated trees in the pyramid texts where the most popular holy tree known to ancient Egyptians is Tamarisk, also known as the Tree of Life. According to these texts, the Tree of Life grew out of the Sacred Mound (The Pyramid), it's branches reaching out and supporting the star and planet studded sky, while it's roots reached down into the watery abyss of the Underworld. The trunk of the Tree of Life represented the World Pillar or Axis Munde - literally "Axis of the Mound" - around which the heavens appeared to revolve. Therefore, the World Pillar was considered the centre of the universe.

Credits: Sam, PhD

The ancient Maya, too, venerated the sacred Ceiba tree and referred to it as the "Tree of Life". The Ceiba represented the connection between the cosmos (branches), and the X'ibalba, the roots of the "underworld," while the trunk represented the human life. Interestingly, the sacred tree of the Maya is often found on pyramidal platforms and, in some cases, even atop ruined pyramids (Photo right: The sacred tree of the Maya atop a pyramid at Aké, Yucatan, Mexico).

[ References: Sacred Hindu Symbols -The Symbolism of Sacred Trees- by Gautam Chatterjee ]

Photo: Earthen pyramid #2 seen from the eastOn Pyramid #2, Djurdjevic noted an approximately 100-meter-long ancient natural stone stairway that ascended nearly to the top of the pyramid [Photo]. He also noted natural stone foundations for several of the terraces or "steps" that curve around the pyramid. These terraces are also found on the other two pyramids and on the earthen hills joining the pyramids to each other.

Photo: Earthen pyramid #2 seen from the west with access ramp

Photo: Earthen pyramid #2 with access ramp, detail

Photo: Earthen pyramid #2 with monumental platform. Detail.On top of Pyramid #2, Djurdjevic noted a flat-topped terraced earthen platform in the shape of an oval/ellipse or "water drop." The structure is approximately two-and-a-half meters in height, 9 meters wide, and 18 meters long. Djurdjevic also noted an exposed artificially created stone wall composing the western edge of the oval earthen platform. Near the center of the oval, Djurdjevic also noted three megalithic stones [Photo] that had recently been unearthed in a collaboration of Vincenzo di Gregorio and the landowner. The stones were found to be lying flat and in a straight line. Djurdjevic speculated that these three stones might once have stood upright, perhaps for ceremonial purposes on the solstices.

Photo: Western section of the platform. Detail

Photo: Massive stone block of the monumental platform. Detail.Pyramid #1 and Pyramid #2 have identical orientations, which are offset from the cardinal points by approximately 10° NE. The orientation of Pyramid #3 cannot be precisely determined at this time, as it is hidden under dense vegetation and needs to be cleared first. However, during the past three years, Djurdjevic has done field research on Pyramid #3 several times and by performing hand clearance of vegetation found many stone retaining walls supporting terraces of artificial origin [Photo], which are no longer visible today. He also detected a massive wall structure [Photo] almost 300 meters in length, two meters wide, and approximately 1.5-1.8 meters in height crossing the top of the pyramid.

Photo: Infrared imagery reveales evidence of vertical slope cut.Download 1000X670

Further evidence of monumental architecture, in particular of earthen Pyramid #2, also known as Cereda Hill, came from the application of new-generation infrared photographic technology developed by Vincenzo di Gregorio. This technology clearly revealed that a large portion of the eastern side of this earthen pyramid was originally removed vertically, after which the horizontal terraces, with their supporting retaining walls, were created. This fact demonstrates that modern farmers did not create terraces on the side of an existing hill.

It should always be remembered that the archaeological evidence has demonstrated that in many ancient cultures the construction of sacred mountains incorporated substantial mass from natural hills, a highly efficient building method. Because in pyramid cultures the most important metaphor in human construction was the hill, the architectural conception of a pyramid should not be understood as simply a cultural design or mental template imposed upon a natural landscape or existing natural landmark, but rather as the acknowledgment of a necessary relationship between natural and artificial forms.

Google Earth Satellite Imagery

Aerial view of pyramid altar #1

Aerial view of pyramid altar #2Aerial view of pyramid altar #3




No formal comprehensive scientific studies of the Montevecchia pyramids have yet been performed. A Czech magazine published a report in 2003 providing data from satellite images and geodetic measurements. To date, Gabriela Lukacs and Nenad Djurdjevic are the only researchers to publish reports on their respective websites.

For more information on the Montevecchia pyramids, please visit Gabriela Lukacs' site, which has published reports in the English language on this subject.



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Back to Bosnia: 2009

Photo: megalithic block and stone sphere lying close to each other, detailVisoko August 3, 2009

Latest discoveries confirm use of stone spheres in sacred megalithic sites

Reporting from Bosnia

Latest research and discoveries on Bosnian stone spheres indicate that ancient man used stone spheres for ritual purposes in sacred megalithic sites.

Moreover, new evidence suggests that ancient man shaped different types of rocks into round or Brotlaib forms using multiple construction methods and transported them into sacred sites situated on top of hills.

Photo right: example of megalithic stone in Brotlaib form obtained from conglomerate sedimentary rock; for the first time ever there's substantial evidence about human activity in the case of the Bosnian stone spheres. Stone spheres and stones in Brotlaib form were also found in ancient burial sites together with Bosnian tombstones, and thus suggest a close relationship to rituals and practices related to death and afterlife.